3D printing - 10 factors still holding it back
Yes, 3D printing stands to completely transform the way we make, replace, and transport products and will disrupt nearly every major industry. However, the technology is still geared toward passionate, motivated makers and hobbyists not the average citizen. We've compiled a list of 10 reasons 3D printing hasn't quite caught on yet and what is holding the technology back.
1. Awaiting the breakthrough consumer model;
Widespread consumer adoption will depend on 3D printers dropping in price. Currently, printers less than USD 1,000 use a DIY style kit that requires assembly of the machine itself and they often don't replicate the CAD designs accurately. But, relatively cheap 3D printers do exist. At USD 299, the Printrbot Simple is an affordable option, though it is very basic and can't print high quality products. Also well under USD 1,000 is RepRap's open source line of printers, which have to be assembled separately. The Cubify Cube is about USD 1,300 and probably the best desktop option since it connects to wifi but its plastic filament can't make anything too sturdy.
2. Expense of SLS printers;
Major patents on selective laser sintering printers expired in January, so perhaps the prices of these machines which run as high as USD 250,000 will decrease. When the patents on fused deposition modeling printers expired, there was an explosion of open source FDM printers that led the technology to become a hobby. The best example was MakerBot, which launched as the most well known FDM printer almost immediately after the FDM patent expired.
3. Patents and legal murkiness;
This year, many patents on 3D printers will expire, possibly creating more competition, innovation and lower prices. However, there are still quite a few overlapping patents out there however, which causes a lot of murkiness. During the last decade, the Patent and Trademark Office has received more than 6,800 3D printing patent applications. Since 2007 almost 700 patents have been filed annually. Another intellectual property issue comes with what the machines are printing. Right now, it's easy to log on to Shapeways and download a CAD file of just about anything. But soon, there will be lawsuits and competition between brands over knockoffs and copyright infringement.
4. The usefulness gap;
Sure, plastic action figures, iPhone cases and Star Wars themed novelties are fun to design and print with a relatively affordable desktop 3D printer like the Cube, but they aren't exactly impactful on our everyday lives, nor are they convincing consumers the machines are a worthy investment.
Mr Pete Basiliere lead Gartner analyst for 3D printing said that “There's no compelling application in the present time because anything you can print on a 3D printer, besides from things that are truly customized, you can buy at a store. A compelling consumer application something that can only be created at home on a 3D printer will hit the scene by 2016.
5. Plastic filament isn't sturdy enough;
For the foreseeable future, the cheapest and most accessible 3D printers will be FDM. These are the desktop printers that use PLA and ABS plastic, which easily melt and fit small molds. However, the plastic isn't sturdy and not many household products with moving parts can be created from the material. Printers will need to use carbon composites or metals to become more useful to the average consumer, as well as manufacturers.
6. That 3D-printed gun;
Before the majority of Americans could wrap their heads around how 3D printing works, a man named Cody Wilson designed, printed and successfully fired a 3D printed gun. The STL file was available for free on his website the next day and 100,000 people downloaded it before the US Department of State ordered him to take it down. Since an all plastic 3D gun probably won't catch on, other companies are working on using SLS technology to print a metal one. So, in December 2013, Congress voted to renew an expiring ban on plastic firearms that could slip past metal detectors, though it didn't add any new restrictions on plastic guns. Philadelphia was the first city to ban 3D printed firearms. A Chicago lawmaker wants to make it illegal to use a 3D printer to make gun parts unless the user has a federal gun manufacturer's license.
7. 3D printers aren't that user-friendly;
Setting up a 3D printer will need to be as easy as hooking up a traditional HP printer. The 3D printer needs to have fewer wires than a television and fewer buttons than a computer for it to become a household electronic, and right now, that's not the case. The printers use high-voltage power supplies and specialized equipment and parts. Some of the cheapest printers can't even connect to wifi and most have low resolution.
Because of the hype around the potential and the cute plastic toys that they produce, 3D printers have come across as easier and more useful than they actually are. The best products that have been created think tools, musical instruments, car parts are made using huge, high end printers that cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Those sub USD 1,000 machines that sit on a desk just aren't going to be as productive.
8. Complex design software;
Downloadable files from Thingiverse and Shapeways are easy to get but they are not moderated and therefore may not work on every type of printer. If you want to design your own file, you need a working knowledge of CAD design. Setting up the model and using the printer takes quite a bit of patience and time, which is another reason the technology has primarily been used by enthusiasts up to this point.
9. 3D printers are still slow;
3D printers are great for mass customization, but are still too slow for manufacturing lots of objects. To change the manufacturing industry, the parts need to be printed in minutes, not hours. It currently takes anywhere from several hours to several days to print, depending on the size of the model and the quality of the printer. Receiving an order from Shapeways, the company that customizes and 3D prints a variety of products, can take up to two weeks, depending on the materials used.
10. Safety concerns;
The FDM printers, which use plastic filament, are relatively safe to use they are often made for desktops and contain both the mold and the residue but they aren't foolproof, and they reach very high temperatures. Powder based printers are messy and potentially explosive depending on what is being made from them. They operate at extremely high temperatures and produce waste. It's not something a consumer would want in their home office. Indoor air quality and the emissions from 3D printers, particularly SLS printers, are also cause for concern.
Source – Techrepublic.com