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Scandium

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  1. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 augustus 2017 08:04
    Is A Scandium Boom Next - A Look At The Scandium Miners

    Aug. 16, 2017 9:17 AM ET|14 comments| Includes: CTEQF, PTNUF, SCYYF

    Matt Bohlsen
    Investment advisor, portfolio strategy, growth at reasonable price
    MARKETPLACETrend Investing

    (3,577 followers)
    Summary

    Scandium is a very small market that has plenty of growth potential.

    Scandium demand and supply are hard to really determine at this point; however, with the increasing need for lightweight aluminum/scandium alloys, scandium demand may soar.

    A look at the scandium miners and my current top three.

    Note: This article was first published on 17 July 2017 on Trend Investing, therefore all data is as of that date.

    Scandium is not rare; however, finding commercially viable grades (>200-300g/t) of scandium is very rare. With lightweight electric vehicles ((EVs)) and airplanes becoming increasingly popular, the demand for scandium could skyrocket, whilst supply may be constrained - similar to the 2017 cobalt story that I was very early to forecast and have covered in depth.

    Similar to cobalt, most scandium is produced as a by-product of the production of other metals - nickel in particular.

    Scandium uses

    Scandium is used for the following:

    1. Scandium/aluminum alloys – By adding a small percentage of scandium it allows aluminum sheets to be welded to each other. This is used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Note that the lightweight, strength and corrosion resistance of scandium/aluminum has huge potential future demand from the EV industry.
    2. Optics and lasers.
    3. Fuel cell technology.
    4. High performance sports equipment – Scandium/aluminium alloy sports equipment includes such items as baseball bats and bicycle frames.
    5. Gun making – Gun revolvers and frames can be made with scandium alloys.
    6. Metal halide lamps – Scandium iodide together with sodium iodide produces a white light resembling sunlight.

    Source

    A key to understand is that by using scandium it offers both cost and strength improvements by promoting lower cost forming techniques on complex shapes, and offering lower cost design options and lower assembly costs.

    Scandium uses

    Source

    Scandium’s benefits are known and understood, but global supply is only a fraction of latent demand. Scandium markets are waiting for reliable supply volumes, from transparent sources, and at viable pricing levels.

    Scandium oxide price - US$4,200/kg

    The 99.95% scandium oxide price is quoted on Mineralprices.com at US$4,200/kg, or for 99.9% scandium metal at US$15,000/kg as of Dec 31, 2016.

    The market size is estimated to be only about 15 tonnes traded pa so a very small market right now. There is potential for the scandium market to grow by several multiples especially if reliable supply can come online at more reasonable prices (~US$2,000/kg).

    Scandium demand and demand

    Demand

    Demand has historically been very limited due to scandium's very high price. Total global demand has been only about 5 to 15 tonnes pa and used mostly for the aerospace industry components that require strong lightweight aluminum/scandium alloys. This type of component has been used in Soviet missiles and MiG-29 and MiG 21 military aircraft.

    Supply

    Supply has been mostly from Russian stockpiles, and some Chinese mines, with a total annual production of only around 10 tonnes. Global supply is thought to be only a fraction of latent demand.

    Although low levels of scandium are not uncommon, economic mine-able deposits averaging at least 200 grams a tonne are very rare, as only four such resources are known to exist worldwide.

  2. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 augustus 2017 08:04
    A look at the scandium miners

    Australian Mines [ASX:AUZ] - Price = AUD 0.016 ~ 75% SCONI

    Australian Mines currently has a market cap of AUD 34m.

    They have two main projects:

    SCONI - Joint Venture agreement to acquire up to 75% of SCONI from Metallica Minerals. The SCONI Project encompasses five deposits (two scandium-cobalt rich, and three nickel-cobalt). The resource has 12 million tonnes at 162 ppm scandium for 2,989 tonnes of scandium oxide, 514,000 tonnes of contained nickel metal (@0.58%) and 54,000 tonnes of contained cobalt metal (@0.06 %). They have a Bankable Feasibility Study in progress.

    Flemington project - An option from Jervois Mining over one of the highest grade scandium deposits in the world, adjacent to Syerston in NSW, has a resource of 3.14Mt @ 434 grams per tonne scandium.

    You can view the company's April 2017 presentation here.

    Clean TeQ [ASX:CLQ] (OTCQX:CTEQF) - Price = AUD 0.72, USD = 0.60

    CleanTeQ currently has a market cap of AUD 343m.

    CleanTeQ 100% owns the Syerston nickel, cobalt, scandium laterite project in NSW, Australia. Also of great interest is that mining legend Robert Friedland owns 20% of the company.

    The Syerston Project is one of the largest and highest grade scandium deposits in the world and one of the highest grade and largest nickel and cobalt deposit outside of Africa. The resource reserve is 700kt of contained nickel (grade @ 0.65%) and 114kt of contained cobalt (grade @ 0.1%), supporting a 20-year mine life (39 years if all resources included). The total measured, indicated, and inferred scandium resource is 18,083 tonnes contained scandium oxide at an average grade of 419ppm.

    The September 2016 PFS resulted in post tax NPV8% of US$891m, with a post tax IRR of 25%. Capital costs of US$680m. Assumes a nickel price of US$7.50/lb and a cobalt price of US$12/lb. The cash cost of production net of cobalt credits was forecast at US$0.89/lb nickel. Note that the nickel price is above current prices and the cobalt price is well below, and scandium was not included in the PFS economics.

    The project is fully permitted with a strategic partnership and AU$81m placement to Pengxin Mining. Pilot plant has processed ~20t of ore with customer samples progressing well.

    For now, the focus is on nickel and cobalt with scandium as a bonus, as it has been excluded from the PFS economics.

    Catalysts include:

    Bankable Feasibility Study by Q4 2017
    Binding off-take agreements and further project finalizing

    Jervois Mining Limited [ASX:JRV] - Price = AUD 0.09

    Jervois Mining currently has a market cap of AUD 13m.

    Jervois owns 100 percent of two major nickel-cobalt-scandium-deposits in New South Wales, Australia. Flemington is currently optioned to Australian Mines.

    There is some checkered history as investors can read here.

    Metallica Minerals [ASX:MLM] - Price = AUD 0.06 ~25% SCONI project

    Metallica Minerals currently has a market cap of AUD 18m.

    The company has optioned off 75% of their SCONI scandium-cobalt-nickel project, which is located in Northern Queensland. The company states that it could become the largest source of scandium in the world. Metallica Minerals will most likely retain a 25% share if Australian Mines meets all the steps.

    Meanwhile the company is focusing on their other projects such as the Urquhart Bauxite project, also in Northern Queensland. You can view the June 2017 company presentation here.

    Platina Resources [ASX:PGM] (OTCPK:PTNUF) - Price = AUD 0.10, USD = 0.07

    Platina Resources currently has a market cap of AUD 10m.

    Platina 100% owns the Owendale Scandium-Cobalt-Nickel-Platinum laterite project in central New South Wales, Australia.

    They have 16,500 tonnes of scandium oxide contained at a grade of 385ppm, and 13,200 tonnes contained cobalt at a grade of 0.15%.

    The company has the potential to become Australia’s first scandium producer with cobalt, platinum and nickel credits.

    The company expects to complete their Feasibility Study in early 2018.

    The company also has 100% ownership of the Skaergaard project in Greenland. This is one of the world’s largest undeveloped gold deposits and one of the largest palladium resources outside of South Africa and Russia.
  3. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 augustus 2017 08:05
    Scandium International Mining Corp. [TSX:SCY] (OTC:SCYYF) - Price = CAD 0.30, USD = 0.25

    Scandium International currently has a market cap of CAD 69m.

    Scandium International's flagship project is the 80% owned Nyngan Scandium Project, at Nyngan in New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest scandium only resource in the world.

    Their NI 43-101 Measured & Indicated resource is Measured: 5.7Mt @ 256 ppm Sc/t, and Indicated: 11.2Mt @ 225 ppm Sc/t.

    Minerals exploration at the site has defined a measured and indicated resource significantly larger (7X) than the currently planned 20-year mine life outlined in the feasibility study.

    Nyngan is a surface mine-able resource, with an excellent infrastructure & jurisdiction.

    May 2016 Definitive Feasibility Study highlights for the Nyngan scandium project:

    "Capital cost estimate for the Project is US$87.1 million,
    Operating cost estimate for the Project is US$557/kg scandium oxide, selling price forecast at US$2,000/kg scandium oxide
    Oxide product volume averages 37,690 kg per year, over 20 years,
    Project Constant Dollar post-tax NPV10% is US$177 million, (post-tax NPV8% is US$225 million),
    Project Constant Dollar IRR is 33.1%,
    Oxide product grades of 98-99.9%, as based on customer requirements,
    Project resource increases by 40% to 16.9 million tonnes, grading 235ppm Sc, at a 100ppm cut-off in the measured and indicated categories, and
    Project Reserve totaling 1.43 million tonnes, grading 409ppm Sc was established on part of the resource."
    Source

    The project has received all key approvals, including a mining lease, necessary to proceed with project construction. Initial off-take agreement of 7,500 kg/year (3 years, renewable) is in place. Production targeted for 2019 at approximately 38,000 kg per year of scandium oxide (scandia) (Sc2O3).

    Financing for construction and further off-take partners is currently being sought.

    The DFS outlines a 20-year mine life using less than 10% of M&I resources; hence there is a large potential to expand mine output, extend mine life, or both. The company also has an adjacent project - the Honeybugle Scandium Project. Drill results similar to Nyngan property with 30 exploration holes drilled during 2014. It offers excellent expansion potential as required.

    Investors can read the company's May 2017 presentation here.

    For more information investors can view an excellent John Kaiser video here, where he is forecasting a scandium boom.

    Conclusion

    As the car and airplane industries move to lightweight materials to gain additional fuel savings and increased range, the need for scandium/aluminum will grow exponentially. Up until now, there has been no reasonably priced source of scandium supply. However, with the advent of electric vehicles and the need for maximum range per kWh of battery per EV, and new lower cost scandium supply coming to market, demand for scandium could skyrocket.

    Risks remain as to the viability of the scandium industry, as well as the usual risks around mining, so investors should take a cautious approach. As usual with greater risk also comes greater reward should scandium demand take off dramatically. Existing or near-term scandium producers can do exceptionally well. Only a small investment for now appears warranted based on the risk/reward balance.

    My top three scandium plays right now are Scandium International Mining, CleanTeq, and Platina Resources. Australian Mines would be my fourth, but they do have over 2 billion shares on issue.

    I would be happy to hear your views on the scandium market and any good scandium plays. As usual all comments are welcome.

    Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, but may initiate a long position in INTERNATIONAL SCANDIUM over the next 72 hours.

    I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

    Additional disclosure: The information in this article is general in nature and should not be relied upon as personal financial advice.

    Editor's Note: This article covers one or more stocks trading at less than $1 per share and/or with less than a $100 million market cap. Please be aware of the risks associated with these stocks.
  4. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 15 oktober 2017 22:02
    Australian Mines Limited (ASX:AUZ) is acquiring full ownership of the Sconi cobalt-nickel-scandium project in Queensland by signing an agreement with JV partner Metallica Minerals (ASX:MLM).

    The Sconi project is rated one of the most advanced projects of its kind in Australia, with mining approvals in place and a bankable feasibility study (BFS) well advanced.

    The Sconi Project is similar to Clean TeQ’s (ASX:CLQ) Syerston project in terms of its in-situ resource size & grade, geology, metallurgy and expected metal recoveries.

    As at Syerston, scandium production at Sconi is a ‘sweetener’, given that it is produced alongside the cobalt and nickel sulphate products for virtually no additional operating cost.

    The consideration for the acquisition is to include $3.5 million in cash and the issue of Australian Mines shares on completion of the BFS and commercial production.

    Australian Mines is now positioned to fully own both the Sconi and the Flemington cobalt-nickel-scandium projects.

    Having full control of both the projects puts Australian Mines in a good position to continue its already advanced off-take discussions with international battery and vehicle manufacturers.

    To shore up the initial interest from end customers, the company has commenced construction of a demonstration-size processing plant to produce samples of cobalt, nickel and scandium products.

    Importantly, the company recently raised $3.5 million via a placement at $0.015 per share to assist in the initial cash payment for the Sconi acquisition.

    The BFS on Sconi is advancing to schedule and is due for completion by April 2018.

    Australian Mines is on track to reach a final investment decision given that it already has a Mining Lease and environmental approvals in place.
  5. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 oktober 2017 16:10

    Scandium

    Scandium is a soft, silvery metallic element. Its atomic number is 21, making it the lightest of the transition metals. Scandium is not particularly rare - its occurrence in crustal rocks is 22 around ppm. This makes scandium generally more abundant than lead, mercury, and precious metals. Despite this fairly common occurrence, scandium rarely concentrates in nature. It does not selectively combine with the common ore-forming anions, so time and geologic forces only rarely form scandium concentrations over 100 ppm. There is currently no dedicated single mine source and it estimated that only 15 tonnes of scandium are produced globally each year.
    Nyngan Project

    Scandium exists in nature in its oxide form. It is very difficult to reduce to its pure elemental state. In fact, it was not isolated in pure form until 1937 and the first pound of pure elemental scandium metal was not produced until 1960. Scandium in oxide form is referred to as scandia or scandium oxide, and the chemical formula is Sc2O3. Processed scandium oxide, a white powder, is stable at ambient temperature and is the standard scandium form for commerce.

    Despite scandium’s scarcity and high cost, interest in the metal is high and multiple high value commercial uses have been developed. Of particular interest is the alloy of scandium into aluminum metal products. When used in combination with other common aluminum alloys scandium can produce stronger, more corrosion resistant, heat tolerant, weldable aluminum products. Aluminum products are being increasingly incorporated into transportation applications (aircraft and automobile) in order to meet fuel efficiency requirements.
    Nyngan Project

    Aircraft manufacturers are particularly interested in scandium alloyed aluminum materials. Aircraft designers believe use of Al-Sc alloys can reduce aircraft weights by 15%-20%. In addition, the ability to employ weldable structures promises similar cost reduction potential.

    Scandium also exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and heat stabilization qualities and the largest volume current use is in solid oxide fuel cells (“SOFCs”). Incorporation of scandium in SOFCs enables a lower operating temperature resulting in longer lived equipment and less costly materials of construction. Bloom Energy is the leading SOFC manufacturer and currently single largest scandium user.
  6. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 oktober 2017 16:10
    2)
    Al-Sc alloys may reduce aircraft weights by 15%-20%

    Numerous other applications have been identified and are under research, most notably high intensity lighting (“stadium lighting”) and high voltage power transmission and additive layer parts manufacturing (“3D Printing”).
    Aluminum Alloy

    Scandium contains unique properties that when incorporated into materials of construction may create unexpected high performance product properties.

    The lack of assured supply sources has slowed the adoption of scandium, but at the same time demand for high performance materials has spurred development of commercial applications. The largest of these potential applications is the use of scandium in aluminum alloys.

    In general, it is possible to modify and improve aluminum base materials by alloying them with scandium. The addition of scandium with other alloy materials improves strength and heat tolerance, promotes corrosion resistance and extends weldability and weld strength to an array of aluminum alloy materials.

    Currently the global mineral production value of aluminum is slightly more than $100 billion, less than only iron ore as a structural metal and slightly greater than copper. The historic growth rate of demand for aluminum is 4% and the forecast for growth through 2018 is ever stronger. Aluminum is chosen for its weight/strength advantages and ease of shaping and manufacturing. Almost all aluminum is alloyed either mildly or in advanced combinations of alloy metals.
    Nyngan Project

    The single largest market sector use for aluminum is transportation, primarily aircraft and automotive. Aluminum products are increasingly incorporated into these applications to meet fuel efficiency requirements. Scandium alloy characteristic can enable even greater uses for aluminum.

    Aircraft makers use aluminum alloys now, and are assessing adoption of aluminum scandium alloy materials. The use of Al-Sc alloys could reduce aircraft weights by15-20%. In addition, the ability to employ weldable structures promises similar cost reduction potential.

    Automotive applications could be even larger consumers of scandium-aluminum materials. Aluminum is currently widely used in drive-trains, chassis and body panels. Each pound of aluminum substituted for conventional steel materials results in a 2.5 pound weight loss for the vehicle. Scandium alloyed aluminum could also promote the adoption of aluminum for wheels and engine parts.

    Additive layer manufacturing (3D Printing) is particularly suited to scandium-aluminum alloy use, where high strength, moldability and weldability are important.

    If only a tiny fraction (0.1%) of the annual aluminum market absorbed scandium in alloy at a 0.5% level, it would represent 350 tonnes ($700M) in global scandia demand.

    Electrical Applications

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are currently the primary application for scandium, where the metal a substitute for yttrium. Scandium exhibits certain electrical and heat stabilizing qualities that make it significantly more effective than yttrium in numerous applications.

    Scandia-stabilized zirconia (SSZ) has extremely high oxygen-ion conductivity, as required for a SOFC electrolyte
    Scandium works as a heat stabilizer in the system, enables reactions at lower temperatures, generates higher power outputs, and increases both the performance and commercial life of the unit

    Nyngan Project

    High voltage tension wires for power transmission are another potential scandium market. Aluminum-scandium alloy has much higher conductivity than other alloys, allowing the wire performance to be superior, both physically (long spans) and electrically (superior conductivity).
  7. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 17 oktober 2017 17:20
    Scandium FAQ

    What is scandium?
    Scandium is an element, often lumped together with the rare earth elements as is yttrium, but it is technically a light transition metal. It is relatively common in the earth's crust, where it readily forms as a compound oxide and tends to remain highly dispersed (low grade). Heavy weathering of surface soils can concentrate scandium, such as is found in lateritic clays in Southeast Asia and Australia, some of them better known today for their concentrations of nickel and cobalt. Scandium does sometimes also associate with platinum, titanium, uranium, iron ore and tungsten, although association with nickel is more common. Scandium can also be found in pegmatite formations, very old geologic fluid formations that typically also contain other minerals, metals and rare earth elements.
    Who supplies scandium today?
    Scandium is supplied today either as a co-product of other primary metal projects, often from diverted leach streams, or is reprocessed out of old tailings from exhausted mining projects where the specific process happened to concentrate scandium levels. Russian sources have used iron ore/uranium mine tailings, while more recent Chinese sources have exploited residual scandium in TiO2 leach streams in pigment plants. The Chinese do have scandium in tailings at Bayan Obo (Iron ore/REE, Inner Mongolia), and are rumored to have other secondary sources in central China.
    How much scandium is available and at what price?
    High grade scandium oxide (scandia) product is scarce and typically not available in any significant commercial quantity. The world supply is estimated at 10-15 tonnes/year, although true production is impossible to determine and could be considerably higher. Publically offered prices range from $3,000/kg to over $5,000/kg, based on quantity, source, and purity of product, although pricing arrangements, like volumes, are not transparent.
    Is this 'no supply' dynamic likely to change?
    Yes, and very soon. Today's high prices and strong interest in scandium's uses are driving many re-processing activities to recover scandium from low grade sources, and supply is increasing as a result. The big change will come from newly recognized lateritic clay sources in Asia and Australia, where much more significant volumes of scandia can be produced at cost levels at or below the re-processing opportunities. The NSW laterite clay belt holds a unique production advantage, with high-grade significant resource size, and a single product focus that can quickly bring supply to market at prices that will promote absorption and growth.

    What are scandium's uses?
    What is scandium's value proposition in these applications?
    What is scandium's value proposition in these applications?Aluminum-scandium alloys will likely be priced at double the cost of typical transportation alloys (the 2X and 5X family of Al alloys), but they will offer up to twice the strength, full weldability, and corrosion resistance in wrought alloys that aircraft manufacturers can utilize to save weight, cut build costs, and extend airframe life. Automotive usage is more likely to begin in the cast alloy applications (engine components) due to heat tolerance and creep resistance characteristics, rather than wrought applications based on strength and construction attributes. The best designed SOFC's today are based on scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and scandium is the best known doping agent for this purpose, improving power density, lowering operating temperatures considerably, and extending unit life to 10 years (10X).
  8. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 7 november 2017 09:56
    Owendale Scandium and Platinum Project, New South Wales (PGM: 100%)

    Highlights:

    Potential to become Australia’s first scandium producer with platinum credits
    Capital cost estimate of A$73.5 million
    Life of mine all-in cash costs estimated at A$598 per kilo scandium oxide

    The Owendale Project is 80km northwest of Parkes and 350km west of Sydney in central New South Wales. It is one of the world’s highest grade and largest tonnage laterite-hosted scandium deposits, and has the potential to become Australia’s first scandium producer with cobalt, platinum and nickel credits.

    Platina completed an updated Mineral Resource estimate for Owendale in August 2017, delivering a 127% increase in the higher grade 600 ppm cut-off scandium Mineral Resource, which is the focus of immediate project development. It also included a 21% increase in the 300 ppm cut-off scandium Mineral Resource.

    The updated Mineral Resource statements include:

    At a cut-off of 300 ppm Sc, the scandium Mineral Resource is:
    Measured Mineral Resource 6.9 Mt @ 440 ppm Sc
    Indicated Mineral Resource 11.6 Mt @ 400 ppm Sc
    Inferred Mineral Resource 15.1 Mt @ 375 ppm Sc
    Total Mineral Resource 33.7 Mt @ 385 ppm Sc
    Containing a total in-situ content of 20,400 tonnes of scandium oxide

    At a higher cut-off of 600 ppm Sc, the scandium Mineral Resource is:
    Measured Mineral Resource 0.71 Mt @ 690 ppm Sc
    Indicated Mineral Resource 0.56 Mt @ 675 ppm Sc
    Inferred Mineral Resource 0.27 Mt @ 645 ppm Sc
    Total Mineral Resource 1.54 Mt @ 675 ppm Sc
    Containing a total in-situ content of 1,600 tonnes of scandium oxide

    At a separate cut-off of 0.08% Co, the cobalt Mineral Resource is:
    Measured Mineral Resource 3.9 Mt @ 0.14% Co
    Indicated Mineral Resource 6.2 Mt @ 0.12% Co
    Inferred Mineral Resource 7.5 Mt @ 0.11% Co
    Total Mineral Resource 17.6 Mt @ 0.15% Co
    Containing a total in-situ content of 8,270 tonnes of cobalt

    A Scoping Study for Owendale completed in March 2015 by SNC-Lavalin Australia Pty Ltd supported the economic and technical viability of the project. A base case for the project is a simple, open-pit mining operation, mining approximately 50,000 tonnes of ore per year for treatment and concentration on site to produce 30 tonnes of scandium at 99.9% purity, with a mine life of 70 years.

    Capital costs are estimated to be A$73.5 million with all-in operating cost estimate of A$598 per kilogram of scandium oxide produced.

    Platina plans to undertake further drilling at Owendale in 2017 while continuing work on a Feasibility Study for the project, due in early 2018.
  9. forum rang 4 hosternokke 6 december 2017 12:02
    Vermogensbeheerder ETF Securities voorziet voor 2018 niet veel schommelingen op de grondstoffenmarkt. Er zal wel veel vraag zijn naar lithium, kobalt en zeldzame grondstoffen.
    Dat blijkt uit de outlook op 2018 van de leverancier van passieve beleggingsproducten. Natuurlijk wordt er daarbij ook gekeken naar de twee grondstoffen met de grootste markten: olie en goud.
    En eerlijk gezegd kunnen we daar vrij kort over zijn: bij die twee grondstoffen gaat er niet zo veel gebeuren, verwacht ETF Securities. De goudprijs zal in 2018 'over het algemeen vlak zijn' en 'de uitputtingsslag tussen de VS en de OPEC' maakt dat de vermogensbeheerder ook weinig kans ziet voor stijgingen in de olieprijs.
    De actie zal vooral moeten komen uit de hoek van minder gangbare grondstoffen. In 2017 zagen we bijvoorbeeld een opleving van lithium en kobalt. Deze grondstoffen zijn essentieel voor de productie van batterijen en door de steeds hogere verwachtingen van onder meer elektrische auto's.
    Op basis van die revolutie voorziet ETF Securities ook nog een aantrekkende vraag. Namelijk naar grondstoffen die nodig zijn voor moderne technologieën die voertuigen technologieafhankelijk en autonoom gaan maken. Het gaat om de zeldzame grondstoffen yttrium en praseodymium.

    Strateeg James Butterfill zegt hierover: "Misschien is de interessantste nieuwe generatie grondstoffen ook de minst bekende: de zeldzame grondstoffen. Ondanks hun onbekendheid bij de meeste mensen, is deze groep integraal onderdeel geworden van de productie van moderne technologieën in vele industrieën, waaronder medicijnen, defensie, transport en energieopwekking. Zij zijn ook al belangrijk in ons dagelijks leven, via elektronica en mobiele apparaten. Met een groeiende mondiale middenklasse, gecombineerd met de opkomst van automatisering, zal een veelvoud van grondstoffen met moeilijke namen zoals - zoals yttrium en praseodymium - een centrale rol in onze moderne levensstandaard spelen."

    www.finanzen.nl/grondstoffen/nieuws/O...
  10. forum rang 7 haas 6 december 2017 19:24
    hoe bedoel u: wie is ETF securities ?
    even gegoocheld:
    okt 2016:
    Volgend jaar(=2017) zal opnieuw een mooi jaar gaan worden voor goud. Voor zilver zien de kansen er zelfs nog glanzender uit, tenminste, dat is de conclusie van ‘ETF Securities’, een vermogensbeheerder dat zich richt op exchange-traded funds (ETF’s), commodity’s (ETC’s) en valuta (ETC’s).

    13 nov. 2017 - ETF Securities verkoopt zijn grondstoffen- en valuta-activiteiten die een waarde van $17,6 miljard hebben aan WisdomTree Investments.
  11. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 13 december 2017 09:40
    quote:

    easy56 schreef op 13 december 2017 09:28:


    clients3.weblink.com.au/pdf/CLQ/01933...

    Clean TeQ awarded contract to supply DeSALx®
    technology for mine water treatment plant

    Clean Teq is geen gewone mijn; Clean Teq verwerkt z'n grondstoffen tot stoffen die direct geschikt zijn voor accu's en batterijen.
    Deze productie levert een enorme meerwaarde op.
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