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Diepzeemijnbouw is de toekomst

19 Posts
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  1. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 27 april 2014 18:13
    Diepzee-mijnbouw stapje dichterbij
    zondag 27 apr 2014, 15:19 (Update: 27-04-14, 15:21)

    Het winnen van grondstoffen op grote diepte in zee komt steeds dichterbij. Afgelopen vrijdag sloot het Canadese bedrijf Nautilus Minerals een contract met Papua-Nieuw-Guinea. Ze vormen een joint venture om in de Bismarckzee, ten oosten van Papua-Nieuw-Guinea, op een diepte van 1600 meter grondstoffen uit de zeebodem te winnen.

    Het is de eerste keer dat een land gaat samenwerken met een bedrijf dat kan delven. Beide zijn bereid om het financiële risico van de winning te delen. Als er winst wordt gemaakt, profiteert het arme Papua-Nieuw-Guinea daarvan mee.

    Koper en goud
    De grond onder de Bismarckzee ligt vol met hoogwaardige mineralen als koper en goud. Nautilus Minerals denkt dat er 3000 tot 5000 kilo goud in de zeebodem zit. Omdat dat niet makkelijk te verkrijgen is, is het erg duur om dit boven water te krijgen. Toch is diepzeemijnbouw een serieuze optie. De grondstoffenprijs wisselt sterk en er is behoefte aan meer grondstoffen.

    Of diepzee-mijnbouw op termijn ook een structurele oplossing biedt, is nog maar de vraag.

    "De cijfers zien er goed uit, ik geloof dat geld verdiend kan worden", zegt Nii Odunton, de secretaris-generaal van de ISA, de organisatie van de Verenigde Naties die over de zeebodem gaat.

    ISA heeft tot nu toe negentien licenties uitgegeven voor onderzoek naar de haalbaarheid van diepzee-mijnbouw. De organisatie werkt aan een code voor milieurichtlijnen.

    Het 'beest'
    De overeenkomst met Papua-Nieuw-Guinea maakt de weg vrij voor het ontwikkelen van een grote robot, die ook wel 'het beest' wordt genoemd. De robot lijkt op een duikboot met vier meter brede snijbladen. Hiermee wordt de bodem omgewoeld. Vrijliggende rotsen worden dan naar het wateroppervlak gepompt.
    De mijnbouw zelf zou binnen vijf jaar van start kunnen gaan.

    Proefkonijn
    Milieuorganisaties zijn fel tegen deze methode. "Papua-Nieuw-Guinea laat zich als proefkonijn gebruiken", stelt Helen Rosenbaum van Greenpeace. "Het is een zorgelijke ontwikkeling. Het is een plaats zo ver weg van mensen, dat Nautilus Minerals kan wegkomen met eventuele negatieve effecten. Ze hebben een arme regering benaderd, zonder dat er regels zijn voor een goed toezicht."
  2. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 27 april 2014 19:10
    quote:

    ff_relativeren schreef op 27 april 2014 19:04:


    hmmm Nautilus Minerals even bekeken. Aandeelprijs 0,48 CAD.
    @ DeZwarteRidder, wat kun je ons over dit bedrijf vertellen ?
    Is er een bijzondere reden dat het aandeel een pennystock is ?
    reetzzz


    NUS.T is een pennystock omdat het veel tegenslagen heeft gehad; vooral de regering van PNG heeft alles flink vertraagd omdat ze zich niet hielden aan een keiharde afspraak (een deelname van 30% in Solwara).
    Dit is nu weer rechtgetrokken.


    www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Home.asp
  3. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 27 april 2014 19:22
    SOLWARA 1 RESOURCE

    In 2007 the exploration team drilled a 43-101 resource on the Solwara 1 Project using newly developed ROV drills. The resulting high grade copper-gold resource was the world's first Seafloor Massive Sulphide ("SMS") resource statement. In 2010/11 further drilling was conducted at Solwara 1 resulting in an increase in the resource base. Results of the updated resource were as follows (November 25, 2011):

    Indicated Mineral Resource: 1,030kt @ 7.2% Cu, 5.0 g/t Au, 23 g/t Ag, 0.4 % Zn
    Inferred Mineral Resource: 1,540kt @ 8.1 % Cu, 6.4 g/t Au, 34 g/t Ag, 0.9% Zn

    A copy of the full updated mineral resource estimate can be found here.

    The original 43-101 resource report can be found here.

    The 2011 Golders Resource update also saw the companies second resource declared for the Solwara 12 project (230K t), some 25km NE of Solwara 1, on EL1324.

    PERMITTING

    The Mining Lease ("ML") application and the development proposal were both submitted to the Government of PNG in Q3, 2008 (October 3, 2008). The ML was granted by the Government of Papua New Guinea on January 17, 2011. (January 17, 2011). The Environmental Permit for the development of the Solwara 1 Project was granted in December 2009, by the Department of Environment and Conservation ("DEC") of Papua New Guinea for a term of 25 years, expiring in 2035 (January 5, 2010). To download the EIS and for more information on Safety, Community and the Environment, please visit our CARES pages www.cares.nautilusminerals.com


    NEXT GENERATION PRODUCTION

    Nautilus plans to launch additional projects on our extensive tenement holdings across the western Pacific. To prepare for this growth we continue to evaluate technology from the perspective of its application to future production systems. Among the key technology areas that we will continue to evaluate and develop are:

    Mobile mineralised material transhipment systems to increase flexibility and reduce material handling and transportation costs.
    Floating concentrator facilities for use at a sheltered near-shore location or ultimately, for offshore/on site application.
    Improved scale/efficiencies in cutting, gathering and pumping equipment.
    Equipment adaptations for rougher sea conditions.
  4. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 30 april 2014 20:03
    quote:

    Uperdepup schreef op 30 april 2014 13:04:


    De mijnbouw kan binnen 5 jaar van start gaan, daarnaast weerstand milieu organisaties.
    Is dit dan toch een aandeel wat interessant genoeg is en nog wel verder omhoog kan dit jaar, of is het tast in het duister zwarte ridder ?


    Volgens mij wil NUS volgend jaar al beginnen.
    Op een diepte van 1600 m is bijna geen leven en kan dus nauwelijks schade worden aangericht, in ieder geval is de milieuschade veel minder dan aan land.
    Op zich verwacht ik niet dat de koers nog veel omhoog kan zonder meer zekerheid over de begindatum.
  5. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 1 mei 2014 08:55
    April 10, 2014
    Nautilus Minerals completes assembly of Bulk Cutter
    Toronto Ontario, April 10, 2014 - Nautilus Minerals Inc. (TSX:NUS, OTCQX: NUSMF) (the "Company" or "Nautilus") announces that assembly of the Bulk Cutter (BC), which is the first of the Seafloor Production Tools (SPTs), has been completed.

    Nautilus' CEO, Mike Johnston said "This is a major milestone for the Company, having the first of the three SPTs assembled. This achievement brings the Company all the closer to making seafloor mining a reality."

    Subsea vehicle designer and manufacturer, Soil Machine Dynamics Ltd (SMD) of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, is the company responsible for building the SPTs for Nautilus. SMD are experts in the "marinization" of mechanical, hydraulic, electric and electronic equipment for use in a subsea environment (water and pressure immersion). SMD uses this skill set as the basis of much of its existing product line in remotely operated vehicles and subsea trenchers. Nautilus is proud to be able to utilize their vast experience in the design, manufacture and testing of our SPTs.

    The BC is the heaviest of the three SPTs, weighing 310 tonnes when fully assembled. It is designed to be the high productivity machine responsible for the bulk of production.

    Some world class companies have been involved in the design of the SPTs:

    The cutting drum of the BC was designed and built by Sandvik (Austria), a world leader in hard-rock mechanized mining and rock cutting equipment. The designs are based on similar designs used on large continuous miner machines used in underground mining and construction.
    The track sets for all three SPTs have been designed and built by Caterpillar, based on an existing Caterpillar excavator track design. Modification to the track set for subsea operation and required cutting duty was completed by SMD in consultation with Caterpillar and Sandvik.
    The dredge pumps for all three SPTs have been supplied by Damen, one of the world's leading dredge equipment suppliers and are based on existing catalogue designs used in the dredging industry.
    The hydraulic equipment for all three SPTs is based on existing off-the-shelf Bosch Rexroth hydraulic equipment, with adaptations by SMD.
    The flexible hoses for all three SPTs have been designed and supplied by ContiTech AG (Germany), and are very similar to the rubber hoses used in the dredging industry.

    Companies and institutions involved in the simulations and test work of the BC include CSIRO, Cellula Robotics, Deltares, Istanbul Technical University, ContiTech Oil & Marine Corp and Paterson & Cooke Consulting.

    Nautilus' CEO, Mike Johnston said "We are proud to have such world class companies and institutions involved in the design and testing of these tools. The next step is to carry out commissioning and acceptance testing of the BC in parallel with assembling the other two production tools, the Auxiliary Cutter and the Collecting Machine."

    How they will work
    The excavation and collection has been split into three individual tasks which will each be carried out by a different vehicle. The Auxiliary Cutter is designed as the pioneering machine which prepares the rugged sea bed for the more powerful Bulk Cutter. These two machines gather the excavated material; the third vehicle, the Collecting Machine will collect the cut material by drawing it in as seawater slurry with internal pumps and pushing it thought a flexible pipe to the subsea pump and on to the production ship via a riser system.

    Links:
    An animation of the production system and a video showing the assembly of the BC can be viewed on the Company's website: www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Investors-...
    Picture of the Bulk Cutter: www.nautilusminerals.com/i/photos/bul...
  6. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 9 mei 2014 14:35
    Friday, May 09, 2014
    State of PNG pays $113M into escrow
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Toronto Ontario, May 9, 2014 - Nautilus Minerals Inc. (TSX:NUS, OTCQX: NUSMF) (the "Company" or "Nautilus") announces that the Independent State of Papua New Guinea's (the "State") nominee for participation in the Company's Solwara 1 Project (the "Project") has today placed US$113,000,000 into escrow, representing the balance of the funding for the State nominee's 15% share of the capital required to complete the development phase of the Project up to first production.

    On April 24, 2014, the Company announced it had resolved the dispute with the State and signed an Agreement (the "Agreement") with the State's nominee, Eda Kopa (Solwara) Limited ("Eda Kopa"), a subsidiary of Petromin PNG Holdings Limited, enabling the Project to move forward toward production (see Links section).

    Mike Johnston, Nautilus' CEO, commented, "the fact that the State's nominee has placed the money into escrow well in advance of the 31 July deadline in the Agreement further demonstrates the support the State now has for the Project, as we continue to work together as partners in this new deep sea mining industry."

    With the State's nominee, Eda Kopa, having paid into escrow the funds for its 15% interest in the Project up to first production, Nautilus must now secure the charter of a Production Support Vessel and secure for Eda Kopa, certain intellectual property rights within 6 months. The funds will be released to Nautilus on the satisfaction of both conditions.

    The Company will now focus its attention on securing a suitable vessel arrangement and is continuing its discussions with potential vessel partners, while also undertaking a tender process with shipyards experienced in building offshore construction vessels.

    Links

    www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Media-News...

  7. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 28 mei 2014 15:32
    Wednesday, May 28, 2014
    Collecting Machine assembly has commenced at SMD
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Toronto Ontario, May 28, 2014 - Nautilus Minerals Inc. (TSX:NUS, OTCQX: NUSMF) (the "Company" or "Nautilus") announces that the assembly of its second of three Seafloor Production Tools ("SPTs"), the Collecting Machine ("CM"), has this week commenced at Soil Machine Dynamics' ("SMD") facility at Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Nautilus' CEO, Mike Johnston said "Having already announced in April this year, the completion of the assembly of the Bulk Cutter ("BC"), we are delighted that the assembly of the CM has now commenced, with the arrival of the chassis at the SMD facility. This is an exciting time for the Company as we continue with the build of the seafloor production equipment. We look forward to the commencement of the assembly of the third and final SPT, the Auxiliary Cutter ("AC"), when its chassis is delivered next month."

    The CM is the lightest of the three SPTs weighing 200 tonnes when fully assembled. It is designed to collect material cut from the seafloor by drawing it in as seawater slurry with internal pumps and pushing it through a flexible pipe to the Riser and Lifting System ("RALS") and onto the Production Support Vessel ("PSV"), arrangements for which are to be in place by the end of the year.

    Subsea vehicle designer and manufacturer, SMD of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, is the company responsible for building the SPTs for Nautilus.

    How they will work:

    The excavation and collection of mineralised material has been split into three individual tasks, which will each be carried out by a different SPT. The AC is designed as the pioneering tool which prepares the rugged sea bed for the more powerful BC. These two tools gather the excavated material; the third, the CM, will collect the cut material by drawing it in as seawater slurry with internal pumps and pushing it through a flexible pipe to the subsea pump and on to the PSV via the RALS.

    Links:

    An animation of the seafloor production system and a video showing the assembly of the Bulk Cutter can be viewed on the Company's website: www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Investors-...

    Assembly of Bulk Cutter completed: www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Media-News...

    Collecting Machine assembly: www.nautilusminerals.com/i/photos/col...

    For more information please refer to www.nautilusminerals.com or contact:


    www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Investors-...
  8. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 26 maart 2015 12:21
    Nautilus' Subsea Slurry and Lift Pump Build to Recommence
    T.NUS | 42 minutes ago

    TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - March 26, 2015) - Nautilus Minerals Inc. (TSX:NUS)(OTCQX:NUSMF) (the "Company" or "Nautilus") announces it has been advised by GE Oil and Gas, that it will recommence assembly of the Subsea Slurry and Lift Pump (SSLP) in July this year.

    Mike Johnston, Nautilus' CEO, commented, "we are delighted to have been advised that the SSLP will be coming out of storage shortly and its assembly will recommence in July of this year. The SSLP is a key piece of equipment in Nautilus' plan to produce copper, gold and other metals from the deep ocean, with a very small environmental footprint. We look forward to taking delivery of the finished pump mid next year."

    SSLP: What does it do?

    The SSLP and riser system transfer the mineralized material as slurry from the deep ocean up onto the Production Support Vessel (PSV), where the mineralized solids are removed. The filtered return water is transferred back down to the pump via the auxiliary riser pipes where it is released back into the same environment from which it originally came from (see figure 1 in the links section below).

    GE Oil and Gas produces these types of pumps for the offshore oil and gas industry, where amongst other things, they are designed to help limit the environmental impacts of drill cuttings in deep water drilling operations by helping recover the cuttings for eventual storage on land.

    About GE Oil and Gas

    GE Oil and Gas is one of the world's leading equipment and services' providers in the oil and gas industry. They have unique capabilities and expertise across the entire value chain - from oil and gas drilling equipment and subsea systems, to turbomachinery solutions and downstream. They have an extensive global network of manufacturing facilities, operational bases & services centres. Combined, their teams have more than 60 years' experience. Nautilus is proud to have GE Oil and Gas as a key service provider to the Solwara 1 Project. To read more on GE Oil and Gas please visit their website at: www.geoilandgas.com.

    Links

    Figure 1: www.nautilusminerals.com/i/photos/SPS...

    An animation of how the seafloor production system works can be viewed on the Company's website: www.nautilusminerals.com/s/Investors-...


    Read more at www.stockhouse.com/news/press-release...
  9. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 1 juni 2015 18:26
    Monday, June 01, 2015
    Nautilus Minerals' Solwara 1 project has the potential to significantly reduce social and environmental impacts compared to terrestrial copper mines
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Earth Economics' Report highlights the need for sustainable copper mining and that the proposed Solwara 1 project is expected to be "far superior" to existing and proposed terrestrial comparison mines

    Toronto Ontario, June 1, 2015 - Nautilus Minerals Inc. (TSX:NUS, OTCQX: NUSMF) ("Nautilus") is pleased to announce that an independent Environmental and Social Benchmarking Analysis (the "Report"), based on natural capital accounting, on Nautilus' Solwara 1 project has been released by Earth Economics. The Report concludes that the Solwara 1 project has the potential to significantly reduce social and environmental impacts commonly associated with large surface terrestrial copper mines.

    Earth Economics was commissioned by Nautilus to conduct an independent, objective environmental and social benchmarking analysis of the proposed deep seabed Solwara 1 project with terrestrial copper mines. Solwara 1 is expected to be the world's first commercial high-grade seafloor copper-gold mine project. The Report was released on May 31, 2015.

    Specifically, the Report compares the social and environmental impacts of the proposed Solwara 1 project with three terrestrial mines: Bingham Canyon (Utah, USA), Prominent Hill (South Australia, Australia) and Intag (a proposed mine in Intag Province, Ecuador).

    Key findings of this natural capital accounting report include:

    World demand for copper continues to rise, with increasing global economic development, expanding renewable energy supplies (wind, hydro, wave geothermal, tidal power) and growing copper plumbing, electronics and communications sectors.
    Recycling is likely limited to around 35% of the supply of copper. Copper ore concentrations are declining. Environmental and social impacts of copper mining are rising.
    There is an urgent need to meet world copper demand while reducing fresh water use and contamination, damaging impacts to communities, mine footprints and CO2 emissions from copper mining.
    Seafloor mining has the potential to minimize the impact of copper mining by producing more copper with fewer natural capital inputs, fewer damaging outputs and a smaller area of impact.
    The proposed Solwara 1 project when compared to the terrestrial mines, entails far less environmental and social impact and less short and long-term risks.
    Terrestrial mines have significant impacts. Measured on the basis of impacts per ton of copper, the Solwara 1 project would outperform terrestrial mines:
    People will not be displaced by the proposed Solwara 1 project
    There will be no impact to food production
    There will be no impact to surface or groundwater fresh water supplies
    There will be no significant risk of disaster (e.g. mine tailing slide into communities)
    There will be no impact to pollination, soil formation, erosion, historic and cultural values
    The monetary damages (measured in terms of USD/year) resulting from terrestrial mines is estimated to be significantly more than that of the proposed Solwara 1 project (4 to 13 times per ton of copper produced for the three mines used in the comparison).
    The long-term mining liabilities for freshwater contamination, tailings and overburden failures that threaten downstream communities do not exist in Solwara 1.
    Mike Johnston, Nautilus' CEO, commented, "Growing copper demand requires our industry to look at more sustainable ways to meet this demand. As showcased in Earth Economics' Report, seafloor mining has the potential to not only provide economic benefits within the communities nearest to the operations while minimizing the impact of copper mining, it also has the potential to change the physical nature of the mining industry for the better."

    "We believe that the proposed Solwara 1 project will launch a new frontier in the blue economy and resource sector. As the first publicly-listed company in the world to commercially explore seafloor mining opportunities, Nautilus is committed to leading the way and setting a high bar for developing an environmentally and socially responsible approach for the industry. Commissioning this report is part of our ongoing process to review, estimate and evaluate project impacts through objective third-party experts," he added.
  10. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 28 februari 2017 13:31
    Zeebodem wordt nieuwe strijdtoneel voor grondstoffen

    Midden in een fabriekshal van scheepsbouwer Royal IHC in Kinderdijk staat een voertuigje dat met stalen rupsbanden is uitgerust. De computer en draden van het zelfsturende apparaat liggen open. Ze zullen later worden ingekapseld in een vuistdikke capsule van glasvezel. Aan de zijkanten van het gevaarte zitten grote oranje doppen. De naam is Apollo 1; wat doet vermoeden dat het om een maanlandingsvoertuig gaat.

    Maar de Apollo 1 gaat precies de andere kant op. De vriendelijk ogende robot is ontwikkeld om een reis te maken naar de oceaanbodem. Daar vele kilometers onder de zeespiegel, moet het kostbare metalen en mineralen als kobalt, goud, koper, zink en mangaan gaan winnen. De grondstoffen zitten in hoge concentratie verstopt in zogenoemde mangaanknollen, zwarte ertsballen ter grootte van aardappels die zich in miljoenen jaren op de zeebodem hebben gevormd.

    Mangaanknollen worden geoogst

    IHC is een van de bedrijven die serieus kijken naar kansen in de diepzeemijnbouw. Het bedrijf zit in een drietal Europese samenwerkingsverbanden die tot doel hebben technieken te ontwikkelen om diepzeemijnbouw op een milieuverantwoorde manier mogelijk te maken.

    ‘Het is geen vraag óf, maar wanneer diepzeemijnbouw start’, zegt van Henk van Muijen, directeur van IHC Mining. Hij leidt het IHC-team dat apparatuur ontwikkelt waarmee mangaanknollen op de zeebodem kunnen worden ‘geoogst’.

    Zeldzame aardmetalen zijn nodig voor productie zonnepanelen

    De verwachte snelle ontwikkeling van de groene economie (elektrische auto’s, windmolens, zonnepanelen) leidt de komende decennia tot een groeiende vraag naar grondstoffen als lithium, kobalt, nikkel, zink, koperen zeldzame aardmetalen als neodymium en dysprosium. Zo zijn nikkel, lithium en kobalt belangrijke bestanddelen van batterijen en zijn zeldzame aardmetalen nodig voor de productie van windturbines en zonnepanelen. Grondstoffen die nu nog op land worden gewonnen, maar in de toekomst schaarser en steeds moeilijker en kostbaarder te winnen zullen zijn. De recente prijsstijging van kobalt en lithium in illustreert dat nog eens.
  11. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 28 februari 2017 13:32

    Niet afhankelijk worden van China

    ‘Europa wil het aanbod van cruciale grondstoffen veilig stellen en niet afhankelijk worden van landen als China’, zegt Peter Robert, directeur business development van scheepsbouwer Damen. China is volgens hem nu al verreweg de grootste producent van zeldzame aardmetalen en heeft via belangen in mijnen wereldwijd 'een stevige vinger in de pap van andere essentiële metalen en mineralen voor de groene economie, zoals koper en kobalt.‘

    Damen heeft een aantal maanden geleden een marktanalyse gemaakt en daar kwam uit, aldus Robert, 'dat het volstrekt helder is dat diepzeemijnbouw op termijn een markt gaat worden. Op zeker moment is de voorraad grondstoffen op land immers eindig.’

    Genoeg voor komende honderden jaren

    Op de zeebodem liggen naar verwachting genoeg hoeveelheden mineralen en metalen om de komende honderden jaren aan de verwachte vraag te kunnen voldoen. Dat wordt al decennialang onderkend. Jules Verne voorspelde het zelfs al in 1870 in zijn boek ‘Twintigduizend mijlen onder zee’. Een gebrek aan regelgeving, technieken, onduidelijke milieueffecten en hoge winningskosten hebben ervoor gezorgd dat de oceaanbodem tot op de dag van vandaag onontgonnen gebied is.

    Maar dat gaat veranderen. De internationale autoriteit ISA die diepzeemijnbouw-projecten in internationale wateren reguleert, heeft al 25 licenties uitgegeven waarmee landen en bedrijven delen van de Indische, Atlantische en Grote Oceaan mogen exploreren. Onder andere China, Rusland, België, Duitsland, Zuid-Korea, Japan en India hebben zo’n licentie in de wacht gesleept en doen nu onderzoek naar diepzeemijnbouw in die gebieden.
    Foto: Ries van Wendel de Joode voor het FD

    Nog veel vragen te beantwoorden

    ‘Er wordt nu gewerkt aan de volgende fase: exploitatielicenties waarmee de daadwerkelijke mijnbouw kan worden gestart’, zegt Jaco van der Hoeven van IHC, specialist op het gebied van Marine Mining, die de Nederlandse overheid adviseert tijdens de jaarlijkse ISA vergaderingen.

    ‘In een groot aantal stukken van de keten kunnen we straks apparatuur gaan leveren', vertelt Robert van Damen. 'We werken samen met het Britse bedrijf Soil Machine Dynamics. Aan hen leveren wij pompen die gebruikt worden in onderwaterapparatuur voor diepzeemijnbouw. Ik verwacht niet dat diepzeemijnbouw op korte termijn zal beginnen, maar we houden de markt heel goed in de gaten. Er is nog veel onderzoek nodig. Hoe gedraagt het materiaal zich onder enorme druk onder water? Wat doe je als er op vijf kilometer diepte iets misgaat? Dat zijn belangrijke vragen.’

    Gebrek aan wetgeving zet bedrijven op achterstand

    Ook belangrijk is de regelgeving. IHC waarschuwt dat het ontbreken van wetgeving in Nederland het Nederlandse maritieme cluster parten kan gaan spelen. Nederlandse bedrijven zijn sterk in offshore, baggeren, onderzeese technologie en r&d, maar hebben volgens Van Muijen ‘dringend behoefte’ aan specifieke wetgeving.

    Nederland heeft in tegenstelling tot veel andere landen de regels van de ISA namelijk niet in de eigen wetgeving opgenomen. Daardoor kan Nederland niet optreden als sponsoring state van een diepzeemijnbouwproject in internationale wateren, een vereiste voor Nederlandse bedrijven om mee te kunnen doen. ‘Een gebrek aan Nederlandse wetgeving zal ertoe leiden dat er geen concessies en contracten in de wacht kunnen worden gesleept’, aldus van der Hoeven. ‘Dat zal de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse industrie nadelig beïnvloeden.’

    ‘Het is voor ons makkelijk te omzeilen door een dochter op te richten in een land dat de wetgeving wel heeft geregeld, maar dan verdwijnt de activiteit en werkgelegenheid uit Nederland’, aldus Van Muijen van IHC Mining.

    Overleg tussen ministeries is gaande

    Een woordvoerder van het ministerie laat weten dat de ontwikkeling van Nederlandse wetgeving nog onderwerp van interdepartementaal ambtelijk overleg is tussen verschillende ministeries.

    Ondertussen werkt IHC gestaag door aan de verdere ontwikkeling van Apollo 1. Het bedrijf hoopt over een aantal jaar een systeem klaar te hebben waarmee op de oceaanbodem de mangaanknollen kunnen worden geoogst. Zo’n systeem bestaat uit een metershoog, zestien meter breed voertuig, de volgende fase van de Apollo 1 zeg maar. Het voertuig krijgt aan de voorkant een grote zuigmond die de knollen oppakt - vergelijk maar met het rooien van aardappels -, en een ingenieus leidingsysteem dat de mangaanknollen naar de oppervlakte pompt. ‘Dat systeem is eigenlijk al bijna een werkend commercieel system’, zegt van der Hoeven (IHC).

    fd.nl/ondernemen/1189658/de-zeebodem-...

    preview.mailerlite.com/v1c6u0/
  12. forum rang 10 DeZwarteRidder 23 juli 2017 16:40
    World's First Deep Sea Mining Venture Set to Launch in 2019

    Remote-controlled robots will journey to the bottom of the ocean in search of copper, nickel, cobalt, gold, and platinum as global demand for minerals surges.
    By Greg Walters
    March 24, 2017
    8:00 AM EDT

    The world's first deep sea mining operation will kick off in early 2019 when a Canadian firm, Nautilus Minerals Inc., lowers a trio of massive remote-controlled mining robots to the floor of the Bismarck Sea off the coast of Papua New Guinea in pursuit of rich copper and gold reserves.

    The machines, each the size of a small house, are equipped with rock-crushing teeth resembling the large incisors of a dinosaur. The robots will lumber across the ocean floor on mammoth treads, grinding and chewing the encrusted seabed, sending plumes of sediment into the surrounding waters and killing marine life that gets in their way. The smallest of the robots weighs 200 tons.

    "A lot of people don't realize that there are more mineral resources on the seafloor than on land," said Michael Johnston, CEO of Nautilus, by phone from the company's field office in Brisbane, Australia. "Technology has allowed us to go there."

    If Nautilus succeeds, an undersea gold rush could be at hand.

    Over two-dozen contracts have already been granted to explore hundreds of thousands of square miles of ocean floor by a United Nations body called the International Seabed Authority (ISA), which regulates areas of the seafloor that lie outside of any national jurisdiction.

    "In the seabed, resources are incredibly rich," said Michael Lodge, Secretary-General of the ISA. "These are virgin resources. They're extremely high-grade. And they are super-abundant."
    An Auxiliary Cutter goes along the sea floor first, removing rough terrain and creating benches for the other machines to work on. It has a boom-mounted cutting head for flexibility. | Nautilus Minerals Inc.

    Analysts warn that population growth and a transition to low-carbon economies will test global supply constraints for minerals. Indeed, current levels of mining exploration are not keeping pace with future demand, according to a peer-reviewed paper published in March by a team of researchers led by the University of Delaware's Saleem Ali.

    The prospect of mineral demand outstripping supply has led an increasing number of firms to consider operations at the bottom of the ocean, where reserves of copper, nickel, and cobalt are thought to be plentiful, along with lesser amounts of gold and platinum.

    "It's no exaggeration to say that there are thousands of years' supply of minerals in the seabed," Secretary-General Lodge said. "There is just absolutely no shortage."

    Nautilus says early tests show their Bismark Sea site, called Solwara-1, is over 10-times as rich in copper as comparable land-based mines, with a copper grade above 7 percent versus an average 0.6 percent grade on land. The site also boasts over 20 grams per ton of gold, versus an average grade of 6 grams per ton on land.

    Many of the world's best options for surface mining have long since been explored and developed, according to Thomas Graedel, an industrial ecologist at Yale University.

    "The planet has been extensively explored on land," he said by phone from New Haven. "I think industry will continue to want to explore for new potential deposits of minerals."

    Indeed, mining the ocean floor has been under consideration for decades, but seen as a remote possibility.

    In one famous case in 1974, the CIA used a fake ocean floor mining expedition, ostensibly backed by the eccentric billionaire Howard Hughes, as cover for an attempt to hoist a sunken Soviet submarine off the coast of Hawaii.

    But now, the practice is shifting from fantasy to reality — a fact that is causing alarm among environmental groups who argue that not enough research has been done to prove seabed mining is ecologically sound.

    "There are too many unknowns for this industry to go ahead," said Natalie Lowrey of the Australia-based Deep Sea Mining Campaign, which is calling for the practice to be banned. "We've already desecrated a lot of our lands. We don't need to be doing that in the deep sea."
    Nautilus Minerals Inc.

    Lowrey worries that the plume of seafloor sediment stirred up by the mining robots could travel with sea currents, disturbing ocean ecosystems. Sediment clouds could prove harmful to filter-feeders, environmentalists argue, undercutting the lower rungs of the food chain and potentially causing knock-on effects for other creatures.

    "There's a serious concern that the toxicity from disturbing the deep sea can move up the food chain to the local communities," who live along the coast of Papua New Guinea, she said.

    Johnston of Nautilus said his company is taking the sediment plume issue seriously, and that the company's machines are designed to minimize the undersea cloud through the collection procedure itself.

    "When we're cutting, we have suction turned on," he said. "It's not like we're blowing stuff all over the place. We're actually sucking it up. So the plume gets minimized through the mining process."

    Johnston added, "We go to great efforts to minimize the impact of the plumes. We're quite confident that the impact from these activities will be significantly less than some of these people claim."

    RELATED: Seawater Could Provide an 'Endless' Source of Uranium for Nuclear Plants

    At Solwara-1, Nautilus is going after a type of deposit known as Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS), which form next to subsea hydrothermal vents at the margins of tectonic plates.

    The deposits, which include copper, gold, and potentially other valuable minerals, collect after cold water seeps into the earth and becomes geothermally heated, dissolving metals and sulfides from the surrounding rocks before being spewed back out of the vent at temperatures up to 400 degrees Celsius and collecting on the sea floor — along with the minerals brought up from below.

    The mining robots have been designed to operate in near-freezing temperatures, under pressure 150 times greater than at sea level.

    The first robot, the auxiliary cutter, carves a level path to make way for the second machine, the bulk cutter, which is equipped with a wide, powerful cutting drum.

    The third robot, called the collecting machine, follows behind them, slurping up the seawater slurry with a consistency like wet cement through internal pumps before sending the material to the ship at the surface via a riser system.

    On the ship, the water is filtered, and solids larger than eight microns are removed, before being returned back into the ocean. The cargo is then transferred to a transport vessel and sent directly to customers in China.

    Now, as Nautilus prepares for its maiden voyage, many will be watching from the sidelines — and if it succeeds, imitators will likely try to follow.

    "If Nautilus goes ahead, it's going to open the gateway for this industry," Lowrey said.
  13. forum rang 4 maurice73 17 maart 2021 17:01
    www.mining-technology.com/news/deepgr...

    Battery metals firm DeepGreen signs deal to merge with SOAC
    5 March 2021 (Last Updated March 8th, 2021 16:00)
    Canadian battery metals firm DeepGreen Metals has agreed to merge with special purpose acquisition company Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corporation (SOAC) to go public.

    Canadian battery metals firm DeepGreen Metals has agreed to merge with special purpose acquisition company Sustainable Opportunities Acquisition Corporation (SOAC) to go public.

    The deal values the combined company at $2.9bn and includes a private investment in public equity (PIPE) of $330m, priced at $10 per share.

    The PIPE investors include Allseas, Maersk Supply Service, Glencore, and certain strategic and institutional investors.

    DeepGreen Metals is engaged in developing battery metals from seafloor polymetallic nodules.

    The company has exploration and commercial rights to three polymetallic nodule contract areas across the Pacific Ocean’s Clarion Clipperton Zone, backed by the Nauru, Kiribati, and Tonga governments.

    Upon the completion of the deal, the combined entity will be renamed as ‘TMC the metals company’ and will operate as The Metals Company.

    Additionally, The Metals Company will be publicly traded company with a listing expected to be on either the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or Nasdaq.

    DeepGreen Metals chairman and CEO Gerard Barron said: “The reality is that the clean energy transition is not possible without taking billions of tons of metal from the planet. Seafloor nodules offer a way to dramatically reduce the environmental bill of this extraction.
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