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Australia is on Track to Become World’s Largest LNG Exporter - EIA

Australia is on track to surpass Qatar as the world’s largest liquefied natural gas exporter, according to Australia’s Department of Industry, Innovation, and Science. Australia already surpasses Qatar in LNG export capacity and exported more LNG than Qatar in November 2018 and April 2019. Within the next year, as Australia’s newly commissioned projects ramp up and operate at full capacity, EIA expects Australia to consistently export more LNG than Qatar.

Australia’s LNG export capacity increased from 2.6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2011 to more than 11.4 Bcf/d in 2019. Australia’s DIIS forecasts that Australian LNG exports will grow to 10.8 Bcf/d by 2020–21 once the recently commissioned Wheatstone, Ichthys, and Prelude floating LNG (FLNG) projects ramp up to full production. Prelude FLNG, a barge located offshore in northwestern Australia, was the last of the eight new LNG export projects that came online in Australia in 2012 through 2018 as part of a major LNG capacity buildout.

Starting in 2012, five LNG export projects were developed in northwestern Australia: onshore projects Pluto, Gorgon, Wheatstone, and Ichthys, and the offshore Prelude FLNG. The total LNG export capacity in northwestern Australia is now 8.1 Bcf/d. In eastern Australia, three LNG export projects were completed in 2015 and 2016 on Curtis Island in Queensland—Queensland Curtis, Gladstone, and Australia Pacific—with a combined nameplate capacity of 3.4 Bcf/d. All three projects in eastern Australia use natural gas from coalbed methane as a feedstock to produce LNG.

Most of Australia’s LNG is exported under long-term contracts to three countries: Japan, China, and South Korea. An increasing share of Australia’s LNG exports in recent years has been sent to China to serve its growing natural gas demand. The remaining volumes were almost entirely exported to other countries in Asia, with occasional small volumes exported to destinations outside of Asia.

For several years, Australia’s natural gas markets in eastern states have been experiencing natural gas shortages and increasing prices because coal-bed methane production at some LNG export facilities in Queensland has not been meeting LNG export commitments. During these shortfalls, project developers have been supplementing their own production with natural gas purchased from the domestic market. The Australian government implemented several initiatives to address domestic natural gas production shortages in eastern states.

Several private companies proposed to develop LNG import terminals in southeastern Australia. Of the five proposed LNG import projects, Port Kembla LNG (proposed import capacity of 0.3 Bcf/d) is in the most advanced stage, having secured the necessary siting permits and an offtake contract with Australian customers. If built, the Port Kembla project will use the floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU) Höegh Galleon starting in January 2021.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Ronald Engels
Voda, met dank goede info,

- Coalbed Methane, dit gebeurt wellicht ook in de Ardennen Belgie in ondergrondse mijnen dacht ik, Utility ENGIE in samenwerking met de rijkste man van Belgie???
- Zou in principe ook in Nederland moeten kunnen of eventueel b.v. POx-Partial Oxydation, CO + H2 productie ondergronds en bovengronds b.v. omgezet katalytisch naar b.v. Methanol en dergelijken.
- Shell Global Solutions heeft dit uitgetest ruwweg 25 jaar geleden, met succes voor zover mij bekend in de Limburgse Ondergrond. Een collega/vriend nu gestorven was hierbij ruim een jaar bij betrokken, dacht omgeving Heerlen, originele laboratorium testen zijn uitgevoerd op het Shell Laboratorium Amsterdam, heb daar kort enkele weken ook aan meegewerkt, weet niet meer precies wanneer, dacht eind jaren tachtig?
- Echter Australie/Queensland doet dit op gigantische grote schaal, indrukwekkend, met slechts weinig CO2 emissies, dit is de basis van deze processen.

Nogmaals met dank, M.v.g. Ronald Engels.
US-China Trade War for US LNG Projects - Wood Mackenzie

In the short-term, Wood Mackenzie expects the US-China trade war to have a fairly limited impact on US LNG projects and LNG flows to Asia Pacific. LNG market fundamentals have softened significantly over recent months and tariffs are unlikely to outweigh this to cause an increase in LNG prices. US LNG is already a very marginal supplier to China. Only four US cargoes have been delivered to China since the tariffs came into effect in September 2018. This is because onstream US producers already have long-term contracts in place with non-Chinese buyers. Moreover shipping economics currently favour delivery of US LNG into Europe rather than into the Pacific Basin.

Instead, China has seen an uptick in Australian volumes since the start of 2019 – as contracts ramp up and also due in part to supply optimisation by portfolio suppliers. The upside for other suppliers with spot volume to sell will, therefore, be modest.

“For US developers, although the risk to Chinese investment and restricted access to Chinese buyers is a blow, it is not fatal.”

The trade spat, however, could have ramifications on the longer term market, with consequences likely to be felt by new supply developments. For Chinese companies, the current political dynamic creates additional risk and uncertainty around new US LNG projects. As a result, Chinese companies may be hesitant to sign up for new long-term volumes. And for those US projects still looking for financing, Chinese companies may be reluctant to invest. This will likely encourage Chinese support for other projects outside the US such as Australia, Mozambique, Russia and Papua New Guinea. And we’ve seen some examples of this shift already in 2019 with CNOOC signing a 13-year offtake agreement from Anadarko’s Mozambique LNG (Area 1), and the entry of CNOOC and CNPC into Russia’s Arctic LNG 2 project.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Total committeert zich aan project Mozambique

Gepubliceerd op 16 aug 2019 om 18:59 | Views: 182

PARIJS (AFN) - De Franse gas- en oliereus Total heeft zich gecommitteerd aan een groot lng-project (vloeibaar gemaakt aardgas) in Mozambique. De onderneming staat op het punt om de opdracht over te nemen van Anadarko Petroleum, als onderdeel van haar uitbreiding in Afrika.

Om het project tot wasdom te laten kopen moet een slordige 23 miljard dollar worden geïnvesteerd. Daarmee zou het de grootste opzichzelfstaande investering in Afrika zijn. De ontwikkeling van de economie van Mozambique is ook grotendeels van het project afhankelijk. Het land in het zuidoosten van het continent behoort tot de armste landen ter wereld en kampt ook nog met de naweeën van een tweetal orkanen die er eerder huishielden.

Total is van plan alle Afrikaanse bezittingen van Anadarko over te nemen. Daartoe behoren ook olie- en gasprojecten in Ghana en Algerije. In Oeganda is Total in gesprek met autoriteiten over een belang in olieproject Lake Albert. Total wil dit belang over nemen van Tullow Oil.
McDermott along with its partners, Chiyoda International Corporation and Zachry Group, announced August 18 that Train 1 of the Freeport LNG project on Quintana Island in Freeport, Texas, has begun producing liquefied natural gas (LNG). While production is in the initial phases, this significant project milestone is a precursor to first cargo, which is expected later this month.

"When a facility starts producing a product, it is always a notable achievement, especially for large-scale projects, such as Freeport LNG," said Mark Coscio, McDermott's Senior Vice President for North, Central and South America. "We are proud of the project team, which has worked hard to accomplish this milestone with exceptional safety performance during the construction phase. We look forward to celebrating first cargo for Train 1 soon with the same focus to safety and quality."

Zachry Group, as the joint venture lead, partnered with McDermott for the Pre-FEED in 2011, followed by FEED works to support the early development stage of Trains 1 and 2 of the project as a one-stop shop solution provider. Later Chiyoda joined the venture and the joint team provided engineering, procurement and facility construction as well as commissioning and initial operations for Train 3 of the project. The project scope includes three pre-treatment trains, a liquefaction facility with three trains, a second loading berth and a 165,000 m3 full containment LNG storage tank.

Freeport LNG Trains 2 and 3 remain on track to meet their previously announced schedules, with Train 2 initial production of LNG scheduled for Q4 of 2019 and Train 3 initial production of LNG scheduled for Q1 of 2020.

SHI to Win Orders for 10 LNG-Fueled Vessels at KRW 751.3 Billion

Samsung Heavy Industries has announced that it received orders for 10 LNG-fueled 113,000 DWT A-max crude oil carriers from an Oceanian shipowner, valued at KRW 751.3 billion. These vessels will be delivered by January 2022 in consecutive order.

SHI has achieved 54% of its annual target of USD 7.8 billion by obtaining orders for 29 vessels equivalent to USD 4.2 billion so far and has diversified its orders into different types of ships including 11 LNG carriers, 14 COTs, two PCs, one special ship, one FPSO and more.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Natural Gas Deliveries to US LNG Export Facilities Set a Record in July 2019 - OPIS

OPIS PointLogic Energy data said that natural gas deliveries to US facilities producing liquefied natural gas for export set a monthly record in July 2019, averaging 6.0 billion cubic feet per day 7% of the total US.dry natural gas production. In the first seven months of 2019, natural gas feedstock deliveries to LNG export facilities have been the fastest growing among all US natural gas consumption sectors. Natural gas delivered by pipelines to Mexico and to US LNG export facilities reached 10.9 Bcf/d in July and averaged 10.0 billion cubic feet per day in the first seven months of this year, 30% more than in the same period of 2018. The United States has been exporting more natural gas than it imports on an annual basis since 2017, and EIA expects that US natural gas exports will continue to increase as new LNG facilities come online.

EIA estimates that US LNG exports set new records in June and July 2019 at 4.8 Bcf/d and 5.2 billion cubic feet per day, respectively, based on tanker loadings data from Bloomberg LP Natural gas feedstock deliveries to LNG export terminals averaged 5.5 billion cubic feet per day in June and 6.0 billion cubic feet per day in July, implying that about 15% of the natural gas feedstock sent to LNG facilities was used as fuel in the liquefaction process.

In the H1 2019, two new liquefaction trains came online: Cameron LNG Train 1 in Louisiana in May and Corpus Christi LNG Train 2 in Texas in June. Current total US LNG export capacity stands at 5.4 billion cubic feet per day across four facilities and nine liquefaction trains.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
The Liberal Government Hands USD 42 Billion in Construction Projects to China at Expense of Canadians

The federal government announced on August 9, 2019, that it will be granting full duty remissions on illegally dumped fabricated steel from China to supply two liquid natural gas projects located in British Columbia. The two projects involved are LNG Canada and Woodfibre LNG, both located on the coast of BC. The partners in LNG Canada are made up of a consortium of investors of which include China. These two LNG projects will be modularized, meaning they will be built in smaller shippable pieces with all the equipment and components preinstalled. The modules will be connected on site, requiring very few construction workers. Essentially, in doing so, the largest project ever in the history of Canada will be handed over to Chinese businesses and workers.

Mr Ed Whalen, President & CEO of the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction said that “The announcement was very disappointing. These two projects, if done in Canada, would have created hundreds of thousands of construction jobs for all trades across the country. Projects like these employ skilled workers from all over Canada and not just in the local area. This is a hundreds-of-thousands-of-jobs-lost kind of mistake.”

The duties on fabricated structural steel have been implemented by the Canadian International Trade Tribunal under the Special Import Measure Act after proof that China, South Korea and Spain were found to be illegally dumping into Canada. An appeal of the CITT’s decision is currently still pending in the Federal Court of Appeal.

Source : Stock House
LNG Import Terminal Gets Official Green Light at the Port of Newcastle

The state government of New South Wales, Australia, has given top-level “Critical State Significant Infrastructure” status to move forward with a USD 500 million liquefied natural gas import terminal at the Port of Newcastle. “Critical State Significant Infrastructure” projects are high priority projects “essential” for the state of New South Wales on economic, social or environmental grounds. They are usually large, expensive and high value projects.

When a project is deemed to be “Critical State Significant Infrastructure”, planning processes and decisions are moved out of the hands of the local council and are decided by the state minister of planning with the assistance of his or her department. The planning process is streamlined.

Project proponents have to apply to the state planning minister for this designation. The NSW Minister for Planning and Public Spaces, Rob Stokes, approved the LNG gas import terminal application.

Mr John Barilaro, NSW’s Acting Premier, said that “The terminal could be operational by 2022-23 and provide supply for gas-fired power stations, helping to manage energy security during the period in which the Liddell [coal-fired] power station is scheduled to close. This LNG terminal would significantly address this risk and help secure a reliable and affordable future for NSW’s gas supply.”

The Port of Newcastle said that the announcement recognises the need to “significantly” increase local natural gas supply, promote competition and “put downward pressure” on the local price of natural gas. Port of Newcastle CEO Craig Carmody commented, “this is a critical future-proofing project for the region. Projects such as the EPIK Newcastle GasDock project open a number of new trade opportunities, develop capability and support businesses and jobs across the Hunter Region and around New South Wales.”

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Rusland wedt op lng-markt met megaprojecten

Gepubliceerd op 5 sep 2019 om 10:37 | Views: 2.241

VLADIVOSTOK (AFN/BLOOMBERG) - Rusland neemt stappen om een nog grotere speler op de markt voor lng (vloeibaar gemaakt aardgas) te worden. Het land wil volgens kenners over vijftien jaar zijn marktaandeel van momenteel 8 procent ruim verdubbelen. Twee grote Russische energiebedrijven kondigden donderdag de bouw van twee grote fabrieken in Siberië aan.

Energiebedrijf Novatek, de grootste Russische producent van lng, bouwt een fabriek op de Noordpool, in Obboezem met een productieomvang van zo'n 20 miljoen ton lng per jaar. Deze kost 21 miljard dollar. Al in de loop van 2023 moet de eerste lng-productie beginnen. Ook branchegenoot Rosneft begint aan een nieuwe fabriek. Deze kan tot 6 miljoen ton lng per jaar produceren. Als beide faciliteiten operationeel zijn, wordt de Russische lng-export verdubbeld.

Rusland opende in 2009 zijn eerste lng-fabriek en voegde er nog één aan toe in 2017. Met zijn lng-productie voornamelijk in Siberië wil Rusland de komende jaren aan de groeiende vraag voor lng van onder meer China en India voldoen. Daarvoor moet het de concurrentie aangaan met andere grote lng-producenten als de Verenigde Staten, Australië en Qatar.

Lng geproduceerd in de fabriek op de noordpool moet zijn weg naar klanten in Azië vinden via de Noordelijke Zeeroute. Daarvoor zet Rusland een speciale ijsbrekervloot in. Deze route wordt steeds meer beschikbaar vanwege het smeltende ijs en is een goedkoper alternatief dan bestaande vaarroutes.
Singapore’s First LNG-Powered Bunker Tanker Christened by MPA Chief Executive

Singapore-based bunker tanker owner and operator Sinanju Tankers Holdings achieved a new milestone with the launch of the republic’s inaugural LNG-powered conventional bunker tanker. The 7,990 dwt vessel was christened “Marine Vicky” by her Lady Sponsor, Ms Quah Ley Hoon, Chief Executive of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore at a launch ceremony held in Nantong, China at Keppel Nantong Shipyard, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Keppel Offshore & Marine. Ms Quah said this is Singapore’s first bunker tanker to run on LNG and signifies the momentum in the industry to adopt LNG as a marine fuel. We are pleased to support Singapore companies such as Sinanju and Keppel O&M through the MPA LNG bunkering pilot programme. The maritime sector is evolving and through these steps, we aim to further strengthen Singapore’s offering as a global maritime hub.

Mr Ju Kai Meng, Managing Director of Sinanju said, “Sinanju is taking a bold move to pioneer the use of LNG as a clean, alternative fuel for bunker tankers in Singapore with the launch of “Marine Vicky”. It is an exciting beginning for our sector and I encourage more bunker tankers to be built with the view of using alternative fuels or other sustainable methods in a bid to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and its environmental impact.”

Sinanju partnered Mitsui & Co, the Singapore subsidiary of Japan-based Mitsui & Co, a leading comprehensive trading and investment firm to place the newbuilding order with Keppel O&M.

Mr Taku Morimoto, Executive Vice President and COO of Mitsui AP said, “We are truly delighted with the launch of Singapore’s very first dual-fuel bunker tanker, which marks an important milestone in Singapore’s journey to become a world leader in supplying clean marine fuels. We thank our partners Sinanju and Keppel O&M, and everyone who contributed to the safe and successful construction of “Marine Vicky”. In particular, we would like to acknowledge the MPA for its great foresight and support for the maritime industry. Mitsui aspires to create eco-friendly societies and we look forward to contributing further to the Maritime Singapore Green Initiative.”

Source : Strategic Research Institute
First Cargo from Freeport LNG Train 1

McDermott, along with its partners, Chiyoda International Corporation and Zachry Group, announced Wednesday, Sept. 4, that the first commissioning cargo of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been shipped from the Freeport LNG project on Quintana Island in Freeport, Texas. Feed gas was introduced into Freeport LNG Train 1 on July 22 and Sept. 4's announcement of first cargo is a precursor to completion of Train 1.

"We continue to make great strides on the Freeport LNG project with the shipping of the first cargo from Train 1, which is a major milestone for the joint venture project team," said Mark Coscio, McDermott's Senior Vice President for North, Central and South America. "Congratulations to everyone for their hard work and dedication in reaching this project achievement and for their strong focus on safety and quality throughout the project. For 2019 alone, the team worked more than 11 million work hours with no lost time incidents, an outstanding accomplishment."

Zachry Group, as the joint venture lead, partnered with McDermott for the Pre-FEED in 2011, followed by FEED works to support the early development stage of the project as a one-stop shop solution provider. Later Chiyoda joined the partnership and the joint team provided engineering, procurement and facility construction as well as commissioning and initial operations for the project. The project includes three liquefaction trains with a projected export capacity of approximately 15 million tons per annum of LNG, a second loading berth and a 165,000 m3 full containment LNG storage tank.

Freeport LNG Trains 2 and 3 remain on track to meet their previously announced schedules, with Train 2 initial production of LNG scheduled for Q4 of 2019 and Train 3 initial production of LNG scheduled for Q1 of 2020.
Twee grootschalige projecten moeten Russische gasproductie verdubbelen

Rusland heeft donderdag twee grote gasprojecten aangekondigd waarmee het land een dominante speler wil worden op de groeiende markt voor vloeibaar gas (lng). De projecten zijn volgens persbureau Bloomberg samen goed voor een export van 26 miljoen ton gas, waarmee de Russische productie ongeveer zou verdubbelen.

Het Russische olie- en gasbedrijf Novatek gaf groen licht voor een investering van ruim €19 mrd, voor een project op het noordelijke schiereiland Gyda dat tussen 2023 en 2025 voltooid moet zijn. Novatek is nu al de grootste producent van vloeibaar aardgas in Rusland, nadat twee jaar geleden een installatie op het naastgelegen schiereiland Jamal in werking was getreden.

De grootste olieproducent Rosneft kwam met een plan voor een installatie in het oosten van Rusland, aan de Japanse Zee. Het project moet een samenwerking worden met het Amerikaanse Exxon, Sodeco uit Japan en het Indiase ONGC Videsh. Beide projecten werden aangekondigd op het Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok.

Van overschot naar tekort

Rusland had vorig jaar een marktaandeel van 8% in de markt van vloeibaar gas. Over vijftien jaar moet dat 20% zijn, zodat Rusland de concurrentie kan aangaan met grote exporteurs zoals Qatar en Australië. De plannen voor nog eens twee grote installaties onderstrepen volgens Bloomberg hoe snel Rusland dat doel nadert.

Door een dip in de olieprijs in 2015 en tegelijkertijd een veel grotere Australische gasproductie, bleven grote investeringen de laatste jaren uit, zegt Bloomberg-analist Fauziah Marzuki. 'Maar dit is nu veranderd. In 2023 ontstaat volgens het marktvooruitzicht van Bloomberg een tekort op de wereldwijde lng-markt', aldus Marzuki. 'Om dat gat te dichten wordt nu met projecten begonnen, voornamelijk door de grote oliemaatschappijen.'

Op dit moment leiden de nieuwe projecten echter nog tot een verzadiging van de markt. De lng-prijzen in Azië zijn afgelopen jaar met ongeveer 60% gedaald.
Zvezda Shipbuilding & SHI Sign Contract for Arctic LNG 2 Project Gas Carriers Design

Rosneft said that Zvezda Shipbuilding Complex and Samsung Heavy Industries Co Ltd signed the contract for the design of gas-carriers for Arctic LNG 2 project during the 5th Eastern Economic Forum. Samsung Heavy Industries will become technology partner of the project and hand over the technical specifications and the design documentation of the project to Zvezda Shipbuilding Complex. The Korean company will also provide assistance in developing working design documentation to Lazurit central design bureau. The Arctic LNG carriers to be built by Zvezda Shipbuilding Complex will meet all the requirements of the Russian Federation regulations which allow determining ships as Russian.

In 2018, PJSC Novatek confirmed a reservation of Zvezda production capacities for the whole set of gas carriers for the Arctic LNG 2 project. In April 2019, Zvezda and Sovcomflot signed the contract for the construction of a pilot gas carrier for the Arctic LNG 2 project.

For the first time in history, the construction of the vessel of this type will be carried out by a Russian shipyard. It should be noted that the USSR had not manufactured such vessels and had been purchasing them abroad for many years.

The vessel’s design allows it to individually pull through the ice of up to 2.1 metres thick. The capacity of the gas carrier’s power station is 45 MW which is comparable to the capacity of a nuclear icebreaker. These Arctic LNG carriers feature increased environmental safety; in particular, they use liquefied natural gas as their primary fuel.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Gazprom Building Partnership to Realize LNG as Marine Fuel

Gazprom is exploring development of LNG-powered vessels and associated support, interacting with potential consumers from among shipping companies, building infrastructure for LNG bunkering, and creating an up-to-date legal and regulatory framework for the use of LNG as a motor fuel. Oleg Melekhin, Director General of Gazprom Gazomotornoye Toplivo, said that we see significant potential in using LNG as a fuel for sea and river vessels thanks to its economic and environmental advantages. The newly-signed Memorandum will allow the parties to consolidate their efforts and expertise in this strategic area.

Oleg Melekhin, Alexey Medvedev, Acting Director General of Gazpromneft Marine Bunker, and Alexey Rakhmanov, President of United Shipbuilding Corporation, signed a memorandum at the 5th Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok a Memorandum of Cooperation and Strategic Partnership.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Ronald Engels

Met dank voor al deze LNG informatie, speciaal van de Russische Artic, TOTAL en TECHNIP-FMC en SAIPEM zijn hier sterk bij betrokken, heb gelukkig deze dividend aandelen op tijd en laag gekocht.

Overigens Technip-FMC gaat splitsen in twee bedrijven in 2020: upstream/deep-sea activiteiten en Onshore/Offshore engineering en constructie, enzv. Positief denk ik.

M.v.groeten, Ronald
Ronald, jij ook bedankt voor je interesse en support.
Fijn dat iemand deze artikelen en nieuws op prijs stelt.

MAN Cryo to Supply LNG Fuel-Gas System for Gas-Battery Propulsion System

MAN Energy Solutions’ marine LNG fuel-gas-system manufacturer has announced that it will supply an LNG fuel-gas supply system to Norwegian ship owner, Egil Ulvan Rederi, for a ‘multipurpose palletised cargo and refrigerated vessel’ newbuild, also known as a LoLo. The vessel is designed by Forde, Norway designer, Multi Maritime, that already counts a number of LNG-powered vessels in its portfolio. The MM85CC design will be built at Tersan Shipyard in Turkey. Tersan has, over the years, also built quite a number of LNG-powered vessels and this will be the sixth such vessel since 2016 that it will outfit with a marine fuel-gas system delivered by MAN Cryo. The newbuild is scheduled for delivery in late 2020.

MAN Cryo’s scope of supply for the vessel covers:
• a vertical, vacuum-insulated 364 m3 LNG tank
• a complex tank-connection space with two redundant LNG supply trains, based on both a pump and a pressure-build-up unit
• an LNG cold-recovery evaporator
• an integrated bunker station (BS100-GR).

Upon construction, the 3,500 dwt-vessel will have a length of 86 meter and breadth of 19.5 m and will service the round trip between Tromsø in northern Norway to Ostfold in the southeast. The vessel is a multipurpose design with reefer capacity, a refrigerated hold and elevators for palletised goods, as well as the capability to discharge fish food at fish farms along its route.

Vertical IMO Type C LNG tank
Worldwide, just a few vertical LNG tanks are in operation that are classed for marine applications. MAN Cryo has produced vertical LNG tanks for marine fuel-gas systems since 2011 and can cite reference projects ranging from 89 to 400 m3 gross volume.

Vertical tanks offer an alternative to horizontal tanks and bring many advantages, including:
• less impact on stability due to smaller liquid surface
• less likely to create sloshing
• increased hydrostatic pressure, facilitating fuel flow.

Source : Strategic Research Institute
Floating Adriatic LNG Port Closer to Easing Russia Gas Dominance

Bloomberg reported that on a recent late-summer’s day, 24 meter high pile drivers shook a rocky beach on the Croatian island of Krk with bone-jarring thumps. Where blue waters meet the tan shoreline, workers were laying the foundation for independence from Russian gas. The construction of a floating seaside liquified natural gas storage facility, already a decade in the making, is still more than a year away from being operational and is far from finished. But planners are already counting on it to give the newest European Union member flexibility in meeting future domestic energy needs and supply storage for other gas users, even if it doesn’t turn a profit before 2025.

Barbara Doric, the managing director of LNG Hrvatska doo, the state company developing the terminal, said that the terminal will ensure the security of supplies, increase competitiveness in the market, and give us a better position in negotiating future gas deals. The project is the first of its kind for Croatia, which has the EU’s fifth-longest coastline, and is the result of the US lobbying to reduce the country’s need for Russian gas. Once online, the terminal will have an annual capacity of 2.6 Bcm, equivalent to the country’s annual usage.

The construction comes amid a regional push to ease the risk of gas shut offs for geopolitical reasons. Russian supplies of the commodity were cut amid disputes with Ukraine in 2006 and 2009, and authorities have since looked at alternative pipelines and other solutions. The Krk LNG terminal would function like one in Lithuania, whose floating terminal operated by Klaipedos Nafta is fully booked through the end of 2020.

Meanwhile, Russian gas giant Gazprom PJSC was dealt a blow when Poland won a challenge today at a European Union court to annul a European Commission decision that the nation said would boost Gazprom’s ability to use the German Opal gas pipeline.

Source : Bloomberg
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